Concentration of Chromium in Soil, Fruits and Leaves of Mango and Guava Trees

Chromium is a major component of the effluent from tanning process and over the years, its concentration in the soil has been increasing. Fruit trees planted on such soils provide fruits, leaves, barks and roots that are used as dietary supplements or medicinal herbs. Consumption of these plant products however, poses a health hazard to man and animals. Chromium has been reported to be carcinogenic and induces lung cancer. This research determines the chromium level in plant and soil samples obtained from the National Institute of Leather and Science Technology (NILEST), Samaru, Zaria. The chromium concentration of the mango fruit, leaf and soil samples were 0.4073±0.0353, 0.4951±0.0876 and 1.2718±0.5229mg/kg respectively.While those of guava fruit, leaf and soil samples were 0.5523±0.0851, 0.5660±0.0446 and 1.5890±1.2746 respectively. The Chromium content of all the fruit samples were higher than the FAO/WHO permissible limit, while those of the leaf and soil samples were below the abovementioned permissible limit. The transfer factors of the guava samples were higher than those of the mango samples. Mango fruit, mango leaf, guava fruit and guava leaf samples had transfer factor of 0.5031±0.29, 0.4686±0.21, 0.6325±0.38 and 0.6398±0.41 respectively. The chromium content of the fruits were all above the WHO/FAO permissible limit while those of the leaf and soil samples were all lower than the WHO/FAO permissible limits. Thus, the fruits pose a health threat to man.

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Information Sources and Information Utilization by Women Crop Farmers for Improvement in Crop Farming Activities in Yobe State

This study was carried out to investigate information sources and level of information utilization by women crop farmers for improvement of crop farming activities in Yobe State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the information sources available and used by women crop farmers in Yobe State. The study adopted the survey design in a population of 14,000 women crop farmers from which 389 were randomly sampled in nine local government areas in the State. Questionnaires were used to generate data, which were descriptively analyzed to answer the research questions. The results showed that the information sources mostly used by the farmers included relations, fellow farmers, radio, etc. The need for information made the farmers to use it for crop farming activities; such as pests, diseases and weed control; disaster control, fertilizer procurement and application; post-harvest technology; agricultural credit; etc. The study therefore recommended that Yobe State Government should train extension workers on how to use information communication technology such as mobile phone on how to subscribe for agricultural information.

Page :  135-144

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Realigning the Secretarial Profession Training to Meet the Challenges of the Digital Age

The unprecedented outcry and complaints from national and international bodies are pointers that there are educational challenges in Nigeria including secretarial education. This paper is a literature review aimed at examining the Realigning of Secretarial profession training to meet the Challenges of the digital age. The digital age poses a very big problem to secretarial practice in Nigeria and if the nation must overcome this problem, it then beholds the secretarial personnel to position themselves properly through training in order to confront the challenges headlong. For the secretary to meaningfully contribute in this task, secretarial profession must be repositioned to fit into the digital age. It was concluded that greater technological input into the secretarial profession would enhance output and will go a long way to improve the image of the secretary and even beyond. It was recommended among others that only qualified trainers should be engaged in the programme for academic excellence and re-training should be organized from time to time for them to update their knowledge while curriculum and instructional methods should be re-examined periodically by secretarial curriculum experts for relevance

Page :  145-152

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Assessment of Policy Awareness and condition of women engaged in cross border trade along Nigeria-Niger corridor

Policy awareness among stakeholders is a vital tool for mobilization support and compliance with policy requirements that could lead to the success of regulations. In recognition of the imperatives of Cross Border Trade in the lives of women especially those living in the Nigeria-Niger border communities, it became important to examine the conditions and policy awareness of women engaged in the conduct of Small Scale Cross border trade in the Nigeria-Niger trade corridor. Using exploratory mixed method, the study used interview and semi-structured questionnaire to interrogate relevant stakeholders including women traders, border officials, local administrators, transporters, porters, and women-focused Civil Society Organizations to get insights into SSCBT in the corridor. Women traders more than men, are facing challenges and threats to their lives and goods in markets and on transit. Persistent and widening banditry, sexual harassment, extortion, dearth of financial support services, normative impediments and general lack of awareness of existing trade policies which hinder trading activities and pose threat to the success of cross border businesses. In addition, it was found that gender sensitivity of border officials and other law enforcement agencies leaves much to be desired as peculiarities of women such as having gender segregated public convenience, childcare facilities and segregated border clearance arrangements are largely inadequate at the borders. Inter alia, the study recommends concerted efforts by governments, nongovernmental organizations, traders and border officials to create awareness through advocacy, provide capacity building avenues through training, secure lives and properties of trades in markets and on transit, improve access to financial services and ensure gender sensitivity in crafting and implementing trade policies.

Page :  153-166

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Analysis of Gender Performance in Senior Secondary School Practical Physics in Gombe metropolis, Gombe State

The study analyzed gender and performance of senior secondary school students in practical physics in Gombe metropolis, Gombe state. The study adopted the pure experimental research design of randomized subjects, post-test and experimental groups. The target population comprised all Senior Secondary School second year (S.S II) physics students in Gombe metropolis, Gombe State in the year 2017. The study was guided by three research questions and one hypothesis. Random sampling technique was adopted to select 80 subjects, 40 male and 40 female from the two randomly selected schools in Gombe metropolis. The instrument used for data collection was Practical Physics Achievement Test (PPAT) which was adopted from NECO (E-5051) and NABTEB (2015) practical physics past questions. The instrument was assumed to be of high reliability, since the test items were adopted from standardized tests. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and t-test at level of significance 0.05. This indicates that there is significant difference in the practical physics performance of male and female students in favor of the male students in the PPAT, t = 0.704, df = 78, p > 0.05. Based on the findings, it is recommended With the help qualified teachers, the female students should be encouraged to participate actively in the practical aspect of the subject. This may enhance their achievement and motivate them to study physics and physics related disciplines in the secondary schools and tertiary institutions

Page :  167-171

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